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年糕 rice cake

http://www.chinesecio.com 2010年12月29日 17:48 网络孔子学院

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年糕 rice cake

    年糕 ,又称粘粘糕,取年年高之意。在南方用糯米 制成,北方则为黏黍。
Rice cake, also called sticky cake, promises a better year. It is made of sticky rice in the south and sticky millet in the north.

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    年糕的历史 悠久 ,汉朝的米糕已有“稻饼”、“糕”、“饵”、“糍”等名称。6世纪食谱 《食次》就有年糕“白茧 ”的制法,北朝《齐民要术》记载 了将米磨成粉制糕的方法
Rice cake has a long history. In the Han Dynasty, rice cake was called daobing, gao, er or ci. The cookbook of the 6th century Shi Ci records the way to make rice cake “baijiantang”. Major Skills of Qi People of the Northern Dynasties describes how to grind rice into powder and make cake.
    元旦 吃年糕盛行于 时代,尤以南方流行 。明末《帝京景物略》卷二记载,正月元旦,“夙兴盥激,吃枣糕,曰年年糕”。北方河北嘉靖时《威县志》说当地吃“蒸羊糕”。在南方,江浙的苏州 、嘉定等地方志称“节糕”。
Eating rice cake on New Year's Day began to gain popularity in the Ming and Qing Dynasties, especially in the south. In the last years of the Ming Dynasty, Volume 2 of Capital Scenery records that, on New Year's Day, “people eat cake with a Chinese date to hope for a better year”. In the North,in Hebei Province,in the reign of Jiajing, Wei County Annals says, the local people ate “steamed New Year cake”. In the South, local chronicles of Suzhou and Jiading call it“Festival Cake”.
    明正德广东《琼台志》记载当地吃春糕:“元旦前以糯粉濈(jí)蔗糖或灰汁笼 春糕,围径尺许,厚五六寸,杂诸果品岁祀,递割为年茶,以相馈答。”其形制类似今天的生日蛋糕。清顾禄《清嘉录》卷十二记载更为详细 ,说将黍粉和糖为糕,叫做“年糕”,有黄色和白色之别。大的一尺见方为“方头糕”,还有像元宝的“糕元宝”,用于除夕 供先、亲戚朋友 间的赠答。此外,还有细长的“条头糕”、宽大的“条半糕”。过节时富家雇人制糕,一般人可在糕店购买。
In the Ming Dynasty, in the reign of Zhengde, Qiongtai Chronicle in Guangdong Province noted that the local people ate Spring Cake: Before the “New Year's day, polished glutinous rice powder is mixed with sucrose or lye to steam Spring Cake in steamers, the girth of the cake is about one chi (one third of a meter), and five or six cun thick (one cun equal to one third of a decimeter). The rice is combined together with various kinds of fruits for the yearly offering of sacrifices to the ancestors,and to serve as mutual presents between friends and acquaintances.”It’s similar to the birthday cakes of today. The description in Volume 12 of the Qingjia Selection by Ye Gulu is more detailed. It says that the cake is made of millet flour and sugar, and is called rice cake. Some are white and others are yellow. The one-foot-long square cake is called “square rice cake”. The gold ingot-shaped one is called “gold ingot cake”, which is used to worship ancestors and present to relatives and friends. There are also lathy ones called “lathy cake” and wide ones called “wide cake”. During the festival, rich families usually hire others to make cake. Ordinary families usually buy cakes in stores.

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